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Old 08-16-2016, 02:30 AM
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Default The war in Transnistria. The speech in the proceedings of the International Tribunal.

THE SPEECH OF DOCTOR IN LAW, PROFESSOR YAKOVLEV V.N. at the proceedings of the International Public Tribunal

(JUNE 28, 1993)

Bendery. Summer 1992.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:31 AM
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Mr. Chairman of the International Public Tribunal!

Members of the highly- authoritative International Public judicial body!

Ladies and gentlemen!

We are today direct witnesses and participants of a truly historical event. It is historical because, for the first time after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the International Public Tribunal will prosecute those who inspired and organized the armed conflict in Pridnestrovie - one of the continuing sources of tension, a bleeding wound on the body of the formerly united Soviet people. There are many of such wounds today. This makes us think that the public verdict, which is supposed to be based on the objective and unbiased investigation and assessment of the evidence as to the sources and reasons that caused Pridnestrovie the bloodshed, many victims and huge material damage, will serve as a true public blame upon the organizers of both the Pridnestrovian and other military conflicts in the territory of the former USSR.


Kalinin street. The remnants of the house June 1992
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:31 AM
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Let's go on to the case under investigation.

The International Public Tribunal is faced with the fundamental problem: to identify observation of international law standards at the time of the military conflict that took place between Moldova Republic and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. This task looks rather difficult. Before the highly-authoritative tribunal can single out the international standards that regulate the armed -conflict situations under investigation, they have to answer one cardinal question: is the armed conflict of an internal or external nature? Whether we like it or not, the correctness and justice of the International Public Tribunal's decision depends on how rightly this question is replied.

Dear Chairman, dear members of the International Public Tribunal! It should be emphasized from the beginning that this conflict is by no means of internal but external, international nature, although there are those who wish to make it look as an internal one.

Moldova Republic leadership do their utmost to prove that the military attack against PMR is an internal conflict, and it must be solved within the state itself, without any interference from the third country. According to this leadership, the whole blame should only be laid on the "bandits", "separatists", leaders of the "false", "illegally established" republic, therefore war laws and customs are inapplicable to this conflict.

The defenders of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic are considered political and criminal offenders rather than military ones. Following this false logics, the Moldova Republic government thinks they have the right to repress the "separatists" in the way they wish. It has happened all through the time of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; along with the "hot", bloody war, Moldova Republic has launched a ruthless ideological and economic war against PMR.

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Old 08-16-2016, 02:32 AM
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This is proved by the text of the Moldova Republic government's appeal to the people of the left-bank and Pridnestrovian regions. The categorical demand was put in this way: "Our offer is that within 48 hours, starting from 18 o'clock, March 15, this year, all the weapons should voluntarily be handed over to the legal bodies of power. Otherwise, the republican bodies of justice will take care to protect their citizens against the "bandit tyranny", irrespective of their nationality." ("Independent Moldova", 17.03.92)

Thus the defenders of Pridnestrovie were qualified as "bandits" and the attacking party as "defendants against bandit tyranny". Everything has been turned upside down, like in a distorting mirror.

Let us, however, put aside the categorical demands by the Moldova Republic leaders. We are first of all concerned with the sources of the conflict, its roots. It should be particularly noted in this connection that it would be a more correct attitude to refer to it not as a normal internal conflict, but as an armed aggression performed by the armed forces of Moldova Republic against the young independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. It is very important to point out that this republic is a unique state formation made up by the will of the people, in the most democratic way worldwide - through a referendum.

The formation of this state was caused by the necessity to protect the Pridnestrovian citizens' rights and freedoms which were violated by the discriminating, nationalistic, Rumanian-way policy of the Moldova Republic leaders.

Those particularly discriminated were Russian-speaking, non-Moldovan people. Discrimination became an integral part of Moldova's national policy. It was normal to give various kinds of abuse, put labels on lots of people: "aliens", "unwelcome", "uninvited", "strangers", "recidivists", "drug addicts", occupants", "alcoholics", "prostitutes", etc.

Human corpses in the Dniester River.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:32 AM
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According to Moldova's nationalistic groups, all these "unwelcome migrants" were the ones who "had blocked the dwelling problem solution", "complicated social and cultural services for the native people", "provoked the native people's dissatisfaction". "Here we are", "notorious" L. Lary exclaims, "the native people have neither jobs, nor places to live, or opportunities to be owners on their land." "The aliens" are accused as "ungrateful", the ones who disrespect the customs of this land, the hospitality and residential laws, "eat our bread and drink our wine". This is the source of the exclamations addressing the "alien instruses": "Don't you think you've been too long in my house! " Another pseudo poet P.Karare informs that "there is a thief living at our home", whom "we have to call a brother". This is a suggestion on how to solve conflict situations,"...Give him some dynamite instead of bread!"

All these nationalistic appeals, positions, demands were day-and-night inflated by all the mass media, in the official and non-official statements by responsible authorities of Moldova. This created favorable conditions the slogan: "Suitcase-railway station- Russia!" President M. Snegur's call: "All Moldovans unite!" became the top of the nationalistic hysteria.

As a result of such discriminative policy, thousands of non-Moldavian families left their native places. They immigrated to Russia.

The hostel of the cotton spinning mill was burnt down. July, 1992
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:32 AM
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It is only one aspect of Moldova's discriminative policy against people. Another aspect is also hostile and anti-popular. It includes the Romanian-way activity of the leaders that is aimed to eliminate the Moldovian people, the bearers of Moldova's customs and traditions, and the very essence of the Republic of Moldova. The matter is that by the decision of the Moldova' Parliament on 23. 06. 90 these people were deprived of their land because it was proclaimed Romanian property. Since the moment the laws on official languages of the state (August-September of 1989) were adopted, the Moldavian nation stopped to exist: Moldavians were turned into Romanians; they were given the status of Romanians, not Moldavians. These people were deprived of their language. It turns out that from their birth, Moldavian people have spoken the Romanian, not Moldavian, language. After using the Cyrillic alphabet for more than 600 years, the people were forced to use the Latin alphabet. And these people were deprived of their flag because they were thrust a three-colored flag. In addition to all, these people, as President Snegur points out, go to bed and wake up with the sounds of hymn "Romanians, wake up!". And with the Romanian borders open, these people will finally be thrust the Romanian currency, too, leis.

Moldavian leaders' activity against Moldavian people is directed by the Christian Democratic National Front headed by the notorious "napoleonette" who led the volunteers' raid against Gagauzian people, the ex-Prime Minister of Moldova M. Druk, who recently claimed for the position of the President in Romania. Following the direction of the Front, a group of terrorists-unionists was made in Moldova's Parliament; these advocated that "Great Romania" should absorb the Republic of Moldova .

With the policy of their leaders being so anti-popular, the Moldavian people are left no other choice except going ahead and defending their right to exist, and to protect their land, language, native culture and traditions.

The kindergarten in Sadovaya Street.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:33 AM
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That's why Moldavian people of Pridnestrovie together with their fellow Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians, Jews, Gagauzians and Germans rose to defend their multinational republic. Pridnestrovian Moldavians are sincerely grateful to their fellow nationalities who took part in the establishment and defense of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. This was solemnly announced in the resolution of the 1st Congress of Pridnestrovian Moldavians held on 30 May, 1992. The declaration says that the Moldavians of Pridnestrovie categorically reject the fact that they were defended by the military formations of Moldova, that they don't need this protection and, at the same time, they curse the armed aggression against the young and independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

An obvious conclusion comes to mind: no autonomy, federation or even confederation can remove the deeply-rooted discriminative, anti-popular, Romanian-way and nationalistic, policy of the rulers of Moldova Republic, who are openly marching toward unification with Romania.

The right for self-determination realized by the Pridnestrovian people has become an insuperable obstacle on the way toward creation of "Great Romania", including, besides Bessarabia, the left- bank regions of the Dnester-river.

Having lost all hope to "peaceful taming" of the Pridnestrovian people, Kishinev leaders chose the armed way of oppressing them.

The result was a bloody war, a lot of victims among people, multibillion losses, people's tears and grief. There's no doubt that inspirers and organizers of the fratricidal war must be prosecuted by people and the world community.

Attention should also be paid to the fact that one of the reasons for the irreconcilable conflict between Moldova and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic were the borders voluntarily determined in 1924 when Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was being formed, also in 1940 at the time of the MSSR formation.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:34 AM
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The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was the result of the Resolution by the Central Committee of All-Russia Bolshevik Communist Party and the People Commissars Council of the Soviet Union on June, 10,1940, "On the Formation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Union Republic ", which approved the suggestion by the People Commissars Council of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Moldavian Region Committee of the Communist Bolshevik Party about the formation of the Union MSSR. There was a decision of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party on 20 July and 24 August, 1940, No. 176, titled "About including Peschany, Kodymsky, Ananyevsky, Baltsky, Valegotsulovsky, Kotovsky, Krasno-Oknensky, Chernoyarsky districts in the Odessky region"; also the Act of the USSR on 2 August, 1940, "About the Formation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Union Republic " that was the legal ground for Tiraspol-city and the Grigoriopolsky, Dubossarsky, Kamensky, Rybnitsky, Slobodzeysky and Tiraspolsky districts to enter the MSSR.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:34 AM
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It should be emphasized that at the time of the USSR formation in 1922, Bessarabia was part of the area occupied by Romania, and it didn't sign the treaty to enter the USSR. Bessarabia's entrance in the USSR wasn't based on the referendum of its citizens. The newly formed republic of MSSR did either adopt a law on entering the USSR as an independent state or sign an alliance treaty.

The Moldavian Autonomous SSR, which was formed in the territory of the Ukraine, was in fact a bridge-head for Bessarabia's return to the USSR because it was considered Russia's long-standing territory (Resolution of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party's Central Committee N13 from 29 July, 1924).

In 1922, the area where the Moldavian Autonomous SSR was formed in 1924 as a part of the Ukrainian SSR became a part of the USSR. In 1940, six regions of the Moldavian Autonomous SSR were turned over to the newly founded MSSR; there was not appropriate resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukraine and the will of the people of Moldavian ASSR and Ukrainian SSR was ignored. The other six regions of the MASSR were turned over to the Ukraine.

In the above mentioned cases, the political legal act on the formation of the Moldavian SSR was not adopted by either the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR or by the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian ASSR. This act was not grounded on either the laws of these republics or on their people's free will.
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Old 08-16-2016, 02:34 AM
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The withdrawal of the MSSR from the USSR and the disintegration of the USSR itself changed drastically the conditions of the present and future existence of multinational Pridnestrovian people. People of Pridnestrovie were completely and unlawfully deprived of their statehood. The restoration of the statehood is a sacred and inalienable right of Pridnestrovian people who formed the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) by way of a referendum. It's important that in their wish to realize the right for self-determination, the Pridnestrovian people don't need any sanctions from Moldova Republic.

Thus, Moldova Republic has no political or legal grounds for their claims to preserve its territorial integrity. The integrity of Moldova Republic was abolished by its own Supreme Soviet (Resolution of 23 June, 1990), which admitted that "on 28 June, 1940, the USSR occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina by power of guns and against the people's will." It asserts hat illegal establishment of the Moldavian SSR on 27 August, 1940, was the act of splitting Bessarabia and Bukovina apart." Analogous statements may be found in the Declaration of Independence of Moldova Republic accepted by the Parliament of Moldova Republic on 27 August, 1991. It is emphasized there that Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and some regions of Herts were captured forcibly on 27 June, 1940, without any public polls. Another fact that was stressed was that against the will of the people in the Moldavian Autonomous SSR (formed on 12 October, 1924), the Supreme Soviet of the USSR founded the Moldavian SSR on 2 August, 1940.
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